figure of speech
verbum volitans: A word that floats in the air, on which everyone is thinking and is just about to be imposed. Figures of speech come in many varieties. In short, the quadripartita ratio offered the student or author a ready-made framework, whether for changing words or the transformation of entire texts. [1] Figures of speech are traditionally classified into schemes, which vary the ordinary sequence or pattern of words, and tropes, where words are made to carry a meaning other than what they ordinarily signify. Professor Robert DiYanni, in his book Literature: Reading Fiction, Poetry, Drama and the Essay[6] wrote: "Rhetoricians have catalogued more than 250 different figures of speech, expressions or ways of using words in a nonliteral sense.". Using these formulas, a pupil could render the same subject or theme in a myriad of ways. For simplicity, this article divides the figures between schemes and tropes, but does not further sub-classify them (e.g., "Figures of Disorder"). This effect may be rhetorical as in the deliberate arrangement of words to achieve something poetic, or imagery as in the use of language to suggest a visual picture or make an idea more vivid. Since it concerned relatively mechanical procedures of adaptation that for the most part could be learned, the techniques concerned could be taught at school at a relatively early age, for example in the improvement of pupils’ own writing. A type of scheme is polysyndeton, the repeating of a conjunction before every element in a list, where normally the conjunction would appear only before the last element, as in "Lions and tigers and bears, oh my! Tropes (from Greek trepein, 'to turn') change the general meaning of words. [4] Philo of Alexandria also listed them as addition (πρόσθεσις - prosthesis), subtraction (ἀφαίρεσις - afairesis), transposition (μετάθεσις - metathesis), and transmutation (ἀλλοίωσις - alloiosis).[5]. Intentional deviation from ordinary language, chosen to produce a rhetorical effect, "Figures of speech" redirects here. Though there are hundreds of figures of speech, here we'll focus on 20 top examples. This page was last edited on 10 October 2020, at 03:22. Schemes (from the Greek schēma, 'form or shape') are figures of speech that change the ordinary or expected pattern of words. A type of scheme is polysyndeton, the repeating of a conjunction before every element in a list, where normally the conjunction would appear only before the last element, as in "Lions … [3] Quintillian then mentioned them in Institutio Oratoria. A figure of speech is a rhetorical device that achieves a special effect by using words in a distinctive way. Most entries link to a page that provides greater detail and relevant examples, but a short definition is placed here for convenience. Henry Peacham, for example, in his The Garden of Eloquence (1577), enumerated 184 different figures of speech. Within each category, words are listed alphabetically. The aim is to use the language inventively to accentuate the effect of what is being said. ", Classical rhetoricians classified figures of speech into four categories or quadripartita ratio:[2], These categories are often still used. A figure of speech is a word or phrase that is used in a non-literal way to create an effect. For example, the phrase, "John, my best friend" uses the scheme known as apposition. A type of trope is metaphor, describing one thing as something that it clearly is not, in order to lead the mind to compare them, in "All the world's a stage. verba ex ore: Taking the words out of someone’s mouth, speaking of what the interlocutor wanted to say. Definition of Figure of Speech. An example of a trope is irony, which is the use of words to convey the opposite of their usual meaning ("For Brutus is an honorable man; / So are they all, all honorable men"). Figure of speech, any intentional deviation from literal statement or common usage that emphasizes, clarifies, or embellishes both written and spoken language.Forming an integral part of language, figures of speech are found in oral literatures as well as in polished poetry and prose and in everyday speech. In a series of familiar lectures, etc", "Henry Peachum., The Garden of Eloquence (1593): Schemas", "rhythm – definition and examples of rhythm in phonetics and poetics", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Figure_of_speech&oldid=982752309, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "Around the rugged rocks the ragged rascal ran" is an example of, "She would run up the stairs and then a new set of curtains" is a variety of, "That filthy place was really dirty" is an example of, commoratio: Repetition of an idea, re-worded, paremvolia: Interference of speak by speaking, memento verbum: Word at the top of the tongue, recordabantur, sensory detail imagery: sight, sound, taste, touch, smell, verbal paradox: Paradox specified to language. A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is an intentional deviation from ordinary language, chosen to produce a rhetorical effect. Figures of speech are traditionally classified into schemes, which vary the ordinary sequence or pattern of words, and tropes, where words are made to carry a meaning other than what they ordinarily signify. Some of those listed may be considered rhetorical devices, which are similar in many ways. "—emphasizing the danger and number of animals more than the prosaic wording with only the second "and". For the mature author, this principle offered a set of tools to rework source texts into a new creation. The earliest known text listing them, though not explicitly as a system, is the Rhetorica ad Herennium, of unknown authorship, where they are called πλεονασμός (pleonasmos - addition), ἔνδεια (endeia - omission), μετάθεσις (metathesis - transposition) and ἐναλλαγή (enallage - permutation). A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is an intentional deviation from ordinary language, chosen to produce a rhetorical effect. During the Renaissance, scholars meticulously enumerated and classified figures of speech. A few examples follow: Scholars of classical Western rhetoric have divided figures of speech into two main categories: schemes and tropes.

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